ICD is a unique concrete microstructure captured by two defining charctersistics.  The first Inter-cellular Cement Densification, a process which we further define in our systems approach as an Inter-cellular Capillary Defense System.  We continuously explore the impact of our chemical technology upon the microstructure of cement paste to improve upon performance.  To date we have used independent labs in Canada, USA and UK with some of the comment you see below being the result.

“Enhance ... (ICD technologies) ... have proven to be a remarkable advance in the state of the science of concrete technology.”  (July 16, 2004)

Through improved cement powder and water content utilization a more efficient mobilization of these two integral mix ingredients is achieved resulting in prolific and uniform beneficial cement paste (C-S-H) development.

ICD microstructure is identified by the substantial reduction in the interconnectivity of a matrix pore system via the restriction of the pore throats that connect individual pores within the system achieving extremely low permeability.

“The porosity & permeability values ... indicate that the pore networks contained within the (PMT) concrete samples are extremely poorly interconnected ... indicating that the concrete structure is essentially impervious to the transmission of water in an aqueous state.  The micropores form a tortuous void system with pore throat apertures that generally fall below 0.4 um.  The porosity & permeability values indicate that the pore networks contained within the concrete samples are largely cellular in nature and lack the permeability pathways required for effective fluid transmission.”  (April 27, 2009)

Through the prolific development of cement paste (C-S-H), an ICD microstructure effectively eliminates the majority of available passageways for the ingress, movement, and migration of gas or liquid.

“ ... the average diameter of the intercrystalline voids within the control sample is estimated to range between 3-6 um, approximately twice the size of the mean pore diameter reported for the PMT sample ...”  (May 14, 2004)

“ ... The PMT concrete specimen with a gas permeability of 0.262 md is likely to exhibit water or brine permeability of <0.05md ...” (December 15, 2008)

Enhance ICD liquid technologies, PMT and EPC, are cement hydration catalysts.  Through an efficient catalytic process both PMT and EPC beneficially impact hydration by enhancing and mobilizing the cement - water interface.

This process is known as Inter-cellular Cement Densification and is the cornerstone of Intelligent Concrete Design.

Enhance ICD integral (PMT) admixtures facilitate an environment in which the interaction between cement and water is beneficially enhanced and mobilized.  PMT's boost the degree of utilization of both cement and water resulting in vastly accelerated and improved hydration via the prolific and uniform development of cement paste (Calcium Silica Hydrate; C-S-H).

“The PMT sample exhibits ... an 80% relative increase in the abundance of hydrated calcium silicate (tobermorite), and a 57% relative decrease in the observed concentration of calcium hydroxide (portlandite) ...”  (May 14, 2004)


icd permeability table 2


ICD: Integral ... The Permeability and Millidarcy connection

Henry Darcy was an 18th century French Engineer who developed what is known as Darcy’s Law.  Darcy’s Law was developed in order to measure the flow of fluid through a porous medium, originally sand.  It has since been standardized to apply to all porous mediums including concrete.

A Darcy and a millidarcy (one thousandth of a Darcy) are the units of measurement by which permeability is quantified by Darcy’s Law.  The lower the measurement, the more impermeable the medium.

ICD integrally conditioned specimens achieve exceptionally low millidarcy measurements, often below one millidarcy, effectively impermeable, in comparison to untreated concrete specimens that typically have much higher permeability, therefore higher millidarcy measurements (for example ICD = 1.4md; standard concrete = 171dm; see .

ICD: Topical

ICD topically treated specimens achieve exceptional reductions in permeability of existing structures, consistently reducing permeability measurements by 30% or more.

Enhance ICD EPC topical catalysts facilitate an environment in which under-utilized cement and water in newly constructed or existing structures are beneficially enhanced and re-mobilized.  EPC boosts the collective degree of utilization of both cement and water through an accelerated or rehydration process whereby latent poorly hydrated cement is engaged to stimulate additional prolific and uniform cement paste (Calcium Silica Hydrate; C-S-H) growth.

“Comparative analysis of control specimens ... before and after treatment with Enhance ICD’s EPC-150 indicates that the product application is directly responsible for a significant reduction of helium porosity, air permeability and grain density.  This change is interpreted to reflect a significant increase in bound water hydration within the Enhance-treated calcium- silicate cement paste ... Relative to the control specimen, the Enhance-treated concrete was observed to exhibit a 36.4% relative decline in overall porosity, coupled with a 29.4% reduction in gas permeability ...

Before and after SEM photos indicate that the relative abundance of intercrystalline microporosity has been dramatically reduced following treatment with the EPC-150.”


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